Caspian Journal of Mathematical Sciences (CJMS)
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/
Caspian Journal of Mathematical Sciences (CJMS)endaily1Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0330Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0330On strongly PI-lifting modules
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2801.html
In this paper, the class of strongly PI-lifting modules is introduced and investigated. The connections between strongly PI-lifting modules and the generalizations of lifting modules are presented. We provide that the class of strongly PI-lifting modules is contained in the class of PI-lifting modules. Moreover, it is proved that for an Abelian ring R, R is PI-lifting as a right R-module if and only if R=I has a projective cover for every right ideal I of R.The structural properties of strongly PI-lifting modules are determined, and examples are provided to exhibit and delimit our results.Wreath product of permutation groups and their actions on a sets
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3053.html
The object of wreath product of permutation groups is defined the actions on cartesian product of two sets. In this paper we consider S(&Gamma;) and S(&Delta;) be permutation groups on &Gamma; and &Delta; respectively, and S(&Gamma;)^{&Delta;} be the set of all maps of &Delta; into the permutations group S(&Gamma;). That is S(&Gamma;)^{&Delta;}={f:&Delta;&rarr;S(&Gamma;)}. S(&Gamma;)^{&Delta;} is a group with respect to the multiplication defined by for all &delta; in &Delta; by (f₁f₂)(&delta;)=f₁(&delta;)f₂(&delta;). After that, we introduce the notion of S(&Delta;) actions on S(&Gamma;)^{&Delta;} : S(&Delta;)&times;S(&Gamma;)^{&Delta;}&rarr;S(&Gamma;)^{&Delta;},(s,f)↦s&sdot;f=f^{s}, wheref^{s}(&delta;)=(f∘s⁻&sup1;)(&delta;)=(fs⁻&sup1;)(&delta;) for all &delta;&isin;&Delta;.Finaly, we give the wreath product W of S(&Gamma;) by S(&Delta;), and the action of W on &Gamma;&times;&Delta;.Heat and mass transfer analysis on MHD peristaltic motion of solid particles in a dusty fluid
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_1895.html
In this article, effects of heat and mass transfer on MHD peristaltic motion of solid particles in a dusty fluid has been investigated. The effects of nonlinear thermal radiation and Hall Effect are also taken into account. The relevant flow analysis is modelled for fluid phase and dust phase in wave frame. Computation of solutions is presented for velocity profile, temperature profile and concentration profile. The impact of all the physical parameters such as particle volume fraction, Hartmann number, Hall Effect, Prandtl number, Eckert number, Schmidt number and Soret number are discussed mathematically and graphically. It is noted that the influence of magnetic field and particle volume fraction opposes the flow. Also, the impact of particle volume fraction is quite opposite on temperature and concentration profile.Bayesian two-sample prediction problem for the Rayleigh distribution under progressively Type-II censoring with random removals
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2542.html
&lrm;In this paper&lrm;, &lrm;we study the &lrm;prediction problem in the two-sample case for predicting future progressively Type-II censored order statistics based on observed progressively Type-II censored order statistics with random removals from the Rayleigh distribution&lrm;. &lrm;We consider two important distributions for random removals&lrm;, binomial and discrete uniform distributions&lrm;. &lrm;In both cases&lrm;, &lrm;Bayesian point and interval predictors are obtained&lrm;. &lrm;In the following&lrm;, &lrm;through a simulation study&lrm;, &lrm;the results are compared to each other&lrm;. &lrm;Finally&lrm;, &lrm;a real data set is given to \textcolor{red}{illustrate} the output results&lrm;.Curves and helix hypersurfaces in Euclidean spaces
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_1898.html
In this paper, we investigate the special curves and the ruled surfaces on the helix hypersurface whose tangent space makes constant angle with a fixed direction in Euclidean -space and give requirement of being developable of the ruled surfaces. Also, we construct the helix surface generated by a plane curve in Euclidean 3-space and give requirement of being a minimal surface of the surface.On Bounded Compact-Weak Approximate Identities
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2959.html
In this paper, we provide examples which show that there exists a type of approximate identity between the class of bounded weak approximate identities and bounded approximate identities.Some geometrical properties of Berger Spheres
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3055.html
&lrm;Our aim in this paper is to investigate some geometrical properties of Berger spheres i&lrm;.e.&lrm;,&lrm; &lrm;homogeneous&lrm;&lrm;Ricci solitons and harmonicity properties of invariant vector fields&lrm;. &lrm;We determine all vector fields&lrm;,&lrm; which are critical points for the energy&lrm; &lrm;functional restricted to vector fields of the same length&lrm;. &lrm;We also see that do&lrm;&lrm; not exist any vector fields defining harmonic map&lrm;, &lrm;and the energy of critical points is explicitly calculated.One Dimensional Dirac Operators on Time Scales
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2721.html
In this work, we study some spectral properties of one dimensional Dirac system, such as formally self-adjointness, orthogonality of eigenfunctions, Green's function, existence of a countable sequence of eigenvalues. Later, we give an expansion formula in eigenfunctions for Dirac operator on time scales. These results will provide an important contribution to the spectral theory of such operators on time scales.A method based on the meshless approach for the numerical solution of the singularly perturbed differential-difference equation arising in the modeling of neuronal variability
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2587.html
In this paper, an efficient procedure based on the multiquadric radialbasis functions (RBFs) collocation method is applied for the numerical so-lution of the singularly perturbed differential-difference (SPDDE) equation.The method is coupled with the Residual subsampling algorithm for sup-port adaptivity. The problem considered in this paper shows turning pointbehavior which is added to the complexity in the construction of numericalapproximation to the solution of the problem. The proposed algorithm isvery simple to perform. Some numerical examples are given to validate thecomputational efficacy of the suggested numerical scheme.Some Results on Soft Hypervector Spaces
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2516.html
In this paper, some basic properties of soft hypervector spaces are studied with respect to some well-known operations such as intersection, union, AND, OR, product and sum. Also, the behavior of them is investigated under linear transformations and b-linear transformations.Non-trivial solutions for a discrete nonlinear boundary value problem with $\phi_c$-Laplacian
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2472.html
In this paper, we prove the existence of at least one non-trivial solution for a discrete nonlinearboundary value problem with $\phi_c$-Laplacian. The approach is based on variational methods.On Relation Between Two-criteria User-optimized Route Choice Problem and Vector Variational Inequality Problem in fuzzy Environment
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3277.html
A two-criteria user-optimized route choice problem is proposed, in which each user of a network system seeks to determine his/her optimal route of travel between an origin-destination (O-D) pair considering two-criteria simultaneously. In this problem, the two-criteria of travel, time and cost, between an O-D pair are fuzzy, in the sense that, time and cost of which links are chosen for traveling are uncertain. Applying the concept of $\alpha$-cut level, a fuzzy vector disutility function on a path is computed. Furthermore, the fuzzy vector equilibrium principle as a generalization and extension of the Wardrop equilibrium principle is defined. Finally, by reducing this fuzzy principle to a crisp one, the relationship between the vector equilibrium flow and the solution of a vector variational inequality problem is discussed.The Generalized difference of $d \left(\chi^{3\textit{I}}\right)$ of fuzzy real numbers over $p$ metric spaces defined by Musielak Orlicz function
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_1902.html
In this article we introduce the sequence spaces $\left[\chi^{3q}_{f\mu },\left\|\left(d\left(x_{1}\right),d\left(x_{2}\right),\cdots, d\left(x_{n-1}\right)\right)\right\|_{p}\right]^{\textit{I}\left(F\right)}$ and $\left[\Lambda^{3q}_{f\mu },\left\|\left(d\left(x_{1}\right),d\left(x_{2}\right),\cdots, d\left(x_{n-1}\right)\right)\right\|_{p}\right]^{\textit{I}\left(F\right)},$ associated with the differential operator of sequence space defined by Musielak. We study some basic topological and algebraic properties of these spaces. We also investigate some inclusion relations related to these spaces.A Meshless Method for Numerical Solutions of Non-Homogeneous Differential Equation with Variable Delays
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2578.html
This paper is devoted to solve a class of differential equation with simultaneously combining variable coeffcients and variable delays namely variable-delay dierential equations (VDDEs). For this purpose, a numerical method is proposed in which the unknown function and its derivative are approximated with the basis of interpolating Multiquadric radial basis functions (MQRBFs) at arbitrary collocation points. According to the existing mechanism, the synchronization problem is recast to a system of algebraic equations. In the other hand, the proposed method provides a very adjustable framework for approximation according to the discretization and due to a board range of arbitrary nodes. Finally, some illustrative examples are given to verify the validity and applicability of the new technique and also a comparison betweenour results and the existing studies is performed.Inverse Connective Eccentricity Index and its Applications
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2785.html
The inverse connective eccentricity index of a connected graph G is defined as &xi;&minus;1ce (G) =P u&isin;V(G)ǫG(u)dG(u) , where ǫG(u) and dG(u) are the eccentricity and degree of a vertex u in G,respectively. In this paper, we obtain an upper bounds for inverse connective eccentricity indices for various classes of graphs such as generalized hierarchical product graph and F-sum of graphs.On the Empirical Spectral Distribution of Lag-Covariance Matrix in Singular Spectrum Analysis
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3285.html
Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) is a non-parametric and rapidly developing method of time series analysis. Recently, this technique receives much attention in a variety of fields. In SSA, a special matrix that is called lag-covariance matrix plays a pivotal role in analyzing stationary time series. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the Empirical Spectral Distribution (ESD) of lag-covariance matrix converges to Marˇcenko{Pastur distribution or not. Such limiting distribution can help us to provide more reliable statistical inference when encountering with high-dimensional data. Moreover, a simulation study is performed and some tools of Random Matrix Theory (RMT) are used.Some properties of certain subclass of meromorphic functions associated with q -derivative
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2991.html
&lrm;In this paper&lrm;, &lrm;by making use of q -derivative we introduce a new subclass of meromorphically univalent functions&lrm;. &lrm;Precisely&lrm;, &lrm;we give a necessary and sufficient coefficient condition for functions in this class&lrm;. &lrm;Coefficient estimates&lrm;, &lrm;extreme points&lrm;, &lrm;convex linear combination Radii of starlikeness and convexity and finally partial sum property are investigated&lrm;.Spirallike functions in terms of convolution
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3530.html
Abstract. In this paper the author used Salagean differential operator to define a certain subclass of spirallike functions and obtain some convolution results and some upper bounds on the coefficients.A general class of one-parametric with memory method for solving nonlinear equations
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3320.html
In this work, we have created the four families of memory methods by convergence rates of three, six, twelve, and twenty-four. Every member of the proposed class has a self-accelerator parameter. And, it has approximated by using Newton&rsquo;s interpolating polynomials. The new iterative with memory methods have a 50% improvement in the order of convergence.Solving Defender-Attacker Game with Multiple Decision Makers Using Expected-Value Model
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2546.html
Defender-attacker game is a model for conflicting between a defender and an attacker. Defender tries to prevent attacking an opponent by assigning limited security resources. In real world the utility values of the defender-attacker game are assigned by experts which usually are uncertain. According to that the assigned values by several experts may be slightly different and conflicting, we consider a set of all their viewpoints. This approach is similar to hesitant fuzzy environment. Also, each of the experts may have the different weights; AHP method is used to determine the weights of each of the experts. A weighted sum method is applied to obtain a game with aggregated payoffs. An expected value of the fuzzy numbers is introduced to convert the problem into defender-attacker game with interval payoffs. According to this, we proposed a method to solve security game in fuzzy environment. It is shown that the optimal solution of the expected value model is the optimal solution of the original model. Finally, a practical example is illustrated to solve by the proposed method.Liapounoff's type numbers for a homogeneous linear system of fractional order
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2655.html
In this paper, first we consider a homogeneous linear system of fractional order 0&lt;\alpha \leq 1. Next, Liapounoff's type numbers of solutions of this system is proposed. Also, the previous results are a special case of our results.coretractable modules relative to delta
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2714.html
Let R be a ring and M a right R-module. We call M, a \delta(M)-coretractable module if for every proper submodule N of M containing \delta(M), there is a nonzero homomorphism from M=N to M. We investigate some conditions which under two concepts \delta(M)-coretractable and coretractable coincide. For a ring R, we prove that R is right Kasch if and only if R_R is \delta(R-R)-coretractable.GOLDEN NUMBERS
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2715.html
&lrm;The golden ratio $\phi=\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}=1/61803398874...$ is the root of the polynomial $x^2-x-1=0$&lrm;, &lrm;and is the one of the important numbers in mathematics&lrm;. &lrm;The golden ratio is also used in many fields of science&lrm;. &lrm;The golden ratio appears in some patterns in nature&lrm;, &lrm;including the spiral arrangement of leaves and other plant parts&lrm;. &lrm;In this paper&lrm;, &lrm;we present a sequence of golden numbers $\{\phi_n\}_n$ and study their properties&lrm;.The converse of Baer's theorem for two-nilpotent variety
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2732.html
In this paper the generalization of the converse of Baer's theorem for two-nilpotent variety of class row $(n,m)$. is carried out. Baer proved that finiteness of $G/Z_n(G)$ implies that $\gamma_{n+1}(G)$ is finite. Hekster proved the converse of the Baer's theorem with the assumption that $G$ can be finitely generated. The Baer's theorem can be considered as a result of a classical theorem by Schur denoting that finiteness of $G/Z(G)$ leads to the finiteness of $G'$. The converse of the Baer's theorem has been proved conditionally by Taghavi et al. (2019), as well. In the Main Theorem, we prove that, if $\gamma_{m,n}(G)\cap Z_{n,m}(G)=1$ and $\gamma_{m,n+i}(G)$ is finite for some $n,i,m \geq 0$. Then $G/Z_{n,m}(G)$ is finite. In this article some other results are attained by the converse of the Baer's theorem. It is also concluded that when $n=m=1$. Similar results are obtained for variety of the soluble groups. In addition, the converse of the Schur's theorem which proved by Halasi and Podoski is concluded in this paper, for two-nilpotent variety. We have also obtained some similar results of Chakaneh et al. (2019) for $(n,m)$-isoclinic family of groups and $(1,m)$-stem groups.Stability of Sacks-Uhlenbeck Biharmonic Maps
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2751.html
In this paper, the first and second variation formulas of the Sacks-Uhlenbeck bienergy functional is obtained. As an application, instability and non-existence theorems for Sacks-Uhlenbeck biharmonic maps are given.Construction of Closure Operations in a Category of Presheaves
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2782.html
We construct some types of universal closure operations induced by certain collection of morphisms. For this purpose, we use Lawvere-Tierney topologies and universal closure operations that correspond to each other to establish the equivalent conditions over the collection of morphisms. In this way we use multiple sieves instead of principal sieves for constructing results. Examples are also given to illustrate the established results.$k$-distance enclaveless number of a graph
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2783.html
For an integer $k\geq1$, a $k$-distance enclaveless number (or $k$-distance $B$-differential) of a connected graph $G=(V,E)$ is $\Psi^k(G)=max\{|(V-X)\cap N_{k,G}(X)|:X\subseteq V\}$. In this paper, we establish upper bounds on the $k$-distance enclaveless number of a graph in terms of its diameter, radius and girth. Also, we prove that for connected graphs $G$ and $H$ with orders $n$ and $m$ respectively, $\Psi^k(G\times H)\leq mn-n-m+\Psi^k(G)+\Psi^k(H)+1$, where $G\times H$ denotes the direct product of $G$ and $H$. In the end of this paper, we show that the $k$-distance enclaveless number $\Psi^k(T)$ of a tree $T$ on $n\geq k+1$ vertices and with $n_1$ leaves satisfies inequality $\Psi^k(T)\leq\frac{k(2n-2+n_1)}{2k+1}$ and we characterize the extremal trees.A note on some parameters of domination on the edge neighborhood graph of a graph
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2784.html
The edge neighborhood graph N_{e}(G) of a simple graph G is the graph with the vertex set E &cup; S where S is the set of all open edge neighborhood sets of G and two vertices u,v &isin; V (N_e{}(G)) adjacent if u &isin; E and v is an open edge neighborhood set containing u. In this paper, we determine the domination number, the total domination number, the independent domination number and the 2-domination number in the edge neighborhood graph. We also obtain a 2-domination polynomial of the edge neighborhood graph for some certain graphs.Concerning strongly divisible, strongly fixed, and strongly $z$-ideals in $\mathcal{R}L$
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2802.html
As usual, the ring of continuous real-valued functions on a frame $L$ is denoted by $\mathcal{R}L$. We determine the relation among strongly $z$-ideals, strongly divisible ideals and uniformly closed ideals in the ring $\mathcal{R}L$. We characterize Lindel\"of frames based on strongly fixed ideals in $\mathcal{R}L$. We observe that a weakly spatial frame $L$ is Lindel\"of if and if every strongly divisible ideal in $\mathcal{R}L$ is strongly fixed; if and only if every closed ideal in $\mathcal{R}L$ is strongly fixed.N− Transvectants
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2814.html
We consider the sl(2,R)-module structure on the spaces of n&minus;ary diﬀerential operators acting on the spaces of weighted densities. We classify sl(2,R)-invariant n&minus;ary diﬀerential operators acting on the spaces of weighted densities.A modified forward-backward splitting method for sum of monotone operators and demicontractive mappings
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2958.html
In this paper, by using a modified forward-backward splitting method, the author introduces and studies an iterative algorithm for finding a common element of the set of fixed points of demicontractive mappings and the set of solutions of variational inclusion with set-valued maximal monotone mapping and inverse strongly monotone mappings in real Hilbert spaces.\,The author proves that the sequence $x_n$ which is generated by the proposed iterative algorithm converges strongly to a common element of two sets above. Finally, some applications are given.Some Special Identities for Jacobsthal and Jacobsthal-Lucas Generalized Octonions
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2960.html
We study on Jacobsthal and Jacobsthal-Lucas generalized octonions over the algebra O(a,b,c) where a,b and c are real numbers. We present Binet formulas for these types of octonions. Furthermore, we give some well-known identities such as Catalan's, Cassini's, d'Ocagne's identities and other special identities for Jacobsthal and Jacobsthal-Lucas generalized octonions.Ritz approximation for the fractional optimal control problems
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2961.html
The manuscript deals with the fractional optimal control problems (FOCPs) based on the Caputo fractional derivative by the Ritz method. To use this method, we transform the FOCPs into an optimization problem and obtain the system of nonlinear algebraic equations. By polynomial basis functions, we approximate solutions. Then, we have the coefficients of polynomial expansions by solving the system of nonlinear equations. Numerical examples are presented which illustrate the performance of the method.Shape Loop Space of Pro-discrete Spaces
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2962.html
In this paper, considering the kth shape loop space for an HPol-expansion p of a pointed topological space (X; x), First we prove that &Omega;k commutes with the product under some conditions and then we show that &Omega;p, for a pro-discrete space (X; x) =lim(Xi; xi) of compact polyhedra. Finally, we conclude that these spaces are metric, second countable and separable.Fitted Numerical Scheme for Singularly Perturbed Differential Equations Having Two Small Delays
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2963.html
In this paper, singularly perturbed differential equations having delay on the convection and reaction terms are considered. The highest order derivative term in the equation is multiplied by a perturbation parameter \epsilon taking arbitrary values in the interval (0; 1]. For small \epsilon, the problem involves a boundary layer on the left or right side of the domain depending on the sign of the coefficient of the convective term. The terms involving the delay are approximated using Taylor series approximation. The resulting singularly perturbed boundary value problem is treated using exponentially fitted upwind finite difference method. The stability of the proposed scheme is analysed and investigated using maximum principle and barrier functions for solution bound. The formulated scheme converges independent of the perturbation parameter with rate of convergence O(N&minus;1). Richardson extrapolation technique is applied to accelerate the rate of convergence of the scheme to order O(N&minus;2). To validate the theoretical finding, three model examples having boundary layer behaviour are considered. The maximum absolute error and rate of convergence of the scheme are computed. The proposed scheme gives accurate and parameter uniformly convergent result.Realizable List by Circulant and Skew-Circulant Matrices
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2982.html
&lrm;In this paper for two given sets of eigenvalues&lrm;, &lrm;which one of them is the eigenvalues of circulant matrix and the other is the eigenvalues of skew-circulant matrix&lrm;, &lrm;we find a nonnegative matrix&lrm;, &lrm;such that the union of two sets be the spectrum of nonnegative matrices&lrm;.Extension of topological derived set operator and topological closure set operator via a class of sets to construct generalized topologies
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2983.html
In this paper we intend to extract some types of generalized topologies from a topological space. To do this, we first generalize the derived set operator and the closure operator of a topological space using a class of subsets of the space, this collection is called the hereditary family since it is closed under the operation subset. The generalized closure operator induces a structure that is our desired generalized topology.A Role of Fuzzy Set-Valued Maps in Integral Inclusions
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2992.html
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of $\alpha$-continuity, $\eta$-admissible pair for fuzzy set-valued maps and define a notion of fuzzy $\eta-(\psi, F)$-contraction. The existence of common fuzzy fixed points for such contraction is investigated in the setting of a complete metric space. The ideas presented herein complement the results of Wardowski, Banach, Heilpern and other results on point-to-point and point-to-set-valued mappings in the comparable literature of metric and fuzzy fixed point theory. A few important of these consequences of our results are highlighted and discussed. Some nontrivial examples and an application to a system of integral inclusions of Fredholm type are considered to support our theorems and to illustrate a usability of the results obtained herein.Is There Any Digital Pseudocovering Map?
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3015.html
&lrm;This paper is devoted to the notion digital pseudocovering map introduced by Han \cite{H4}&lrm;. &lrm;We show that considered conditions in definition of digital pseudocovering map are incompatible unless the map be a covering map&lrm;. &lrm;Then we will modify the definition so that the results remain true&lrm;.WEAK TOPOLOGICAL CENTERS AND COHOMOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3051.html
Let $B$ be a Banach $A-bimodule$. We introduce the weak topological centers of left module action and we show it by $\tilde{{Z}}^\ell_{B^{**}}(A^{**})$. For a compact group, we show that $L^1(G)=\tilde{Z}_{M(G)^{**}}^\ell(L^1(G)^{**})$ and on the other hand we have $\tilde{Z}_1^\ell{(c_0^{**})}\neq c_0^{**}$. Thus the weak topological centers are different with topological centers of left or right module actions. In this manuscript, we investigate the relationships between two concepts with some conclusions in Banach algebras. We also have some application of this new concept and topological centers of module actions in the cohomological properties of Banach algebras, spacial, in the weak amenability and $n$-weak amenability of Banach algebras.Fixed point results for Geraghty contractive type operators in uniform spaces
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3052.html
In this paper, we consider a generalization of $\alpha$-$\phi$-Geraghty contractive type operators and investigate the conditions for the existence and uniqueness of fixed point in a $S$-complete Hausdorff uniform space equipped with a $E$-distance. Our results extend, improve and generalize some related works in the literature. We illustrate the validity of the results with examples.Soft∗∗ b Open Sets in Binary Soft Topological Structure
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3054.html
This paper introduces an application of soft &lowast;&lowast; b open sets in soft binary topology. An important outcome of this work is a formal framework for the study of information associated with ordered pairs of soft sets. Five main results concerning binary soft topological spaces are given in this paper.Some Inequalities On The Order of The Higher Multiplier of Groups
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3205.html
The notion of the Schur multiplier of a pair of groups was introduced by Ellis.Authors generalized the concept of the Schur multiplier of a pair of groups to the c-nilpotent multiplier of a pair of groups.In this paper , we prove some inequalities for the order of the c-nilpotent multiplier of a pair of groups.Length and Mean Fuzzy UP-subalgebras of UP-algebras
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3269.html
The aim of this paper is to introduce the notions of the length and the mean of a hyper structure in UP-algebras. The notions of length fuzzy UP-subalgebras and mean fuzzy UP-subalgebras of UP-algebras are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of length fuzzy UP-subalgebras and mean fuzzy UP-subalgebras are discussed. Relations between length fuzzy UP-subalgebras (resp., mean fuzzy UP-subalgebras) and hyperfuzzy UP-subalgebras are established. Moreover, we discuss the relationships among length fuzzy UP-subalgebras (resp., mean fuzzy UP-subalgebras) and upper level subsets, lower level subsets, and equal level subsets of the length (resp., mean) of a fuzzy structure in UP-algebras.Fuzzy decisive set method for solving multiobjective linear programming problem with intuitionistic fuzzy parameters as a new approach
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3273.html
In this article, we construct a new computational algorithm for solving multiobjective linear programming problem in intuitionistic fuzzy environment. The resources and technological coefficients are taken to be intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Here, the intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective linear programming problem is transformed into an equivalent crisp multi-objective linear programming problem. By using fuzzy mathematical programming approach, the transformed multiobjective linear programming problem is reduced into a single objective nonlinear and non-convex programming problem. Stepwise algorithm is given for solving an intuitionistic fuzzy multiobjective linear programming problem and it is checked with a numerical example using intuitionistic fuzzy decisive set method.HAMILTONIAN CYCLE IN THE POWER GRAPH OF DIRECT PRODUCT TWO p-GROUPS OF PRIME EXPONENTS
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3279.html
The power graph P(G) of a finite group G is a graph whose vertex set is the group G and distinct elements x; y are adjacent if one is a power of the other. Suppose that G = P * Q, where P (resp. Q) is a finite p-group (resp. q-group) of exponent p (resp. q) for distinct prime numbers p &lt; q. In this paper, we determine necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of Hamiltonian cycles in P(G).Reverses of Féjer's Inequalities for Convex Functions
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3280.html
Let f be a convex function on I and a, b&isin;I with a 0 &le;(1/2)&int;_{a}^{b}|t-((a+b)/2)|p(t)dt[f₊&prime;(((a+b)/2))-f₋&prime;(((a+b)/2))] &le;&int;_{a}^{b}p(t)f(t)dt-(&int;_{a}^{b}p(t)dt)f(((a+b)/2)) &le;(1/2)&int;_{a}^{b}|t-((a+b)/2)|p(t)dt[f₋&prime;(b)-f₊&prime;(a)] and 0 &le;(1/2)&int;_{a}^{b}[(1/2)(b-a)-|t-((a+b)/2)|]p(t)dt[f₊&prime;(((a+b)/2))-f₋&prime;(((a+b)/2))] &le;(&int;_{a}^{b}p(t)dt)((f(a)+f(b))/2)-&int;_{a}^{b}p(t)f(t)dt &le;(1/2)&int;_{a}^{b}[(1/2)(b-a)-|t-((a+b)/2)|]p(t)dt[f₋&prime;(b)-f₊&prime;(a)].Mathematical Analysis for Oncolytic Virotherapy, Considering the Role of the Lytic Cycle in the Presence of Immune System Response
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3282.html
The immune system of the cancer patient's body and the viral lytic cycle play important roles in cancer virotherapy. Most mathematical models for virotherapy do not include these two agents simultaneously. In this paper, based on clinical observations we propose a mathematical model including the time of the viral lytic cycle, the viral burst size, and the immune system response. The proposed model is a nonlinear system of delay differential equations in which the period of the viral lytic cycle is modeled as a delay parameter and is used as the bifurcation parameter. We analyze the stability of equilibrium points and the existence of Hopf bifurcation and obtain some conditions for the stability of equilibrium points in terms of the burst size and delay parameter. Finally, we confirm the results with a numerical example and describe them from a biological point of view.A special type of IF operations, IF modules and IF homomorphisms
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3283.html
In this paper we study about IF binary operations on some IF sets, at ﬁrst. Then we introduce IF groups, IF modules and IF homo- morphisms under IF binary operations. We present some properties of IF groups rings and modules under binary operation. IF modules and IF homomorphisms over this kind of IF rings are introduced and investigated.The Hadamard-type k-step Pell sequences in Finite Groups
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3284.html
In this work, we study the Hadamard-type k-step Pell sequence modulo m and then, we obtain the cyclic groups which are generated by the multiplicative orders of the Hadamard-type k-step Pell matrix when read modulo m. Then we extend the Hadamard-type k-step Pell sequence to groups and we redefine the Hadamard-type k-step Pell sequence by means of the elements of groups. Finally, we obtain the periods of the Hadamard-type 3-step Pell sequence in the semi-dihedral group SD2m and the quasi-dihedral group QD2m.Optimization in progressively Type-II censoring with random sample size based on cost constraint
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3286.html
&lrm;In this paper&lrm;, &lrm;we consider the progressively Type-II censoring and &lrm;the sample size is assumed as a random variable from a Poisson distribution. The optimal sample size is determined by considering &lrm;a&lrm; cost constraint&lrm;. &lrm;Towards this end, &lrm;&lrm;&lrm;we first introduce a cost function and then the optimal parameter of Poisson distribution is obtained so that the cost function does not exceed a pre-fixed value&lrm;. &lrm;In the following&lrm;, &lrm;through a simulation study&lrm;, &lrm;the results are evaluated&lrm;. &lrm;Finally&lrm;, &lrm;the conclusion of the article is presented&lrm;.Fixed Point Theorems in midconvex subgroups of a Hilbert group
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3344.html
In this paper, after introducing inner products on groups, first, we define a Hilbert group using the inner products and in the last section, we present some fixed points for closed and midconvex subgroups of such Hilbert groups.THE VALIDITY OF THE COLLATZ CONJECTURE AND GENERALIZATION
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3452.html
Over eighty years ago, the German mathematician Lothar Collatz formulated aninteresting mathematical problem, which he was afraid to publish, for thesimple reason that he could not solve it. The Collatz conjecture is anelusive problem in mathematics regarding the oneness of natural numbers whenrunning through a specific function based on being odd or even, specificallystating that regardless of the initial number the series will eventuallyreach the number $1$. In this paper, an elementary proof of the Collatzconjecture is presented and generalized.Cooperative Games with Multiple Scenarios in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Environment
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3453.html
&lrm;The main aim of this paper is to introduce the core and nucleolus notions of cooperative games with multiple scenarios in uncertain environment&lrm;. &lrm;Taking imprecision of information into account&lrm;, &lrm;we incorporate fuzzy coalition values&lrm;, &lrm;which are represented by intuitionistic fuzzy numbers&lrm;. &lrm;They can be applied as an appropriate approach to define a fuzzy set in the case that available information is not sufficient for defining an imprecise concept by means of a conventional fuzzy set&lrm;. &lrm;The characteristic function of such games associates a coalition with a vector containing the intuitionistic fuzzy components&lrm;. &lrm;The notion of expected interval is defined and computed for the intuitionistic fuzzy numbers&lrm;. &lrm;Then&lrm;, &lrm;an approach is proposed to transform the problem into a single-objective cooperative game with interval-valued payoffs&lrm;. &lrm;The concepts of core and nucleolus are considered&lrm;. &lrm;It is shown that the core is nonempty in these games&lrm;. &lrm;A method is proposed to compute the nucleolus of such the problems&lrm;. &lrm;Finally&lrm;, &lrm;the validity and applicability of the approach are illustrated by a numerical example.Tauberian theorems for the weighted mean methods of summability in intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3454.html
In this paper, weighted mean methods of summability are given in intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces IFNS. Also, some Tauberian conditions are defined for the weighted mean methods of summability in IFNS.Complexiton Solutions of Some Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations via Modified Double Sub-Equation Method
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3455.html
In this study, we focus on extended (3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equations in constructing complexiton solutions. On this way, we use modified double sub-equation method which presents different solutions from ones obtained through double sub-equation method. Modified double sub-equation method employs two wave transformations to reach expected solutions. In literature, this method is given in a different way and considered as generalization of double sub-equation method.Application of The Sine-Gordon Expansion Method on Nonlinear Various Physical Models
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3456.html
In this paper, by utilizing the Sine-Gordan expansion method, soliton solutions of the higher-order improved Boussinesq equation, Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, and seventh-order Sawada-Kotera equation are obtained. Given partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations, by choosing the compatible wave transformation associated with the structure of the equation. Based on the solution of the Sine-Gordan equation, a polynomial system of equations is obtained according to the principle of homogeneous balancing. The solution of the outgoing system gives the parameters which are included by the solution. Plot3d and Plot2d graphics are given in detail. As a result, many different graphic models are obtained from soliton solutions of equations that play a very important role in mathematical physics and engineering.AN ECOLOGICAL MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT OF ECO-SYSTEM BASED ON OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3485.html
Sustainable forest management is one of the warming issues in the present century. In this paper we have used the model of control theory to control the effect of toxicity and illegal logging of mature trees in the ecosystem of Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. In this study we have briefly mentioned some of the fields in which these challenges are present. These fields especially include sustainable forestry management of ecosystem. We have considered the Modified Leslie-Grower response function to introduce as the alternative resource for industries when forestry resources are devasted. The boundedness, persistence, equilibria and stability are examined along with bionomic equilibria and optimal harvesting strategy. Our main objective in this paper is to investigate the scopes and applications of control theory in real life situation, especially in efficient and sustainable forest growth.Leader-Following consensus of chaotic fractional-order multi-agent systems using distributed adaptive protocols
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3505.html
In this study, the problem of consensus of multi-agent chaotic systems of fractional order is considered. Using the fractional order derivative in Caputo's sense and the classical stability theorem of linear fractional order systems as well as algebraic graph theory, sufficient conditions are provided to ensure consensus for fractional multi-agent systems. The distributed adaptive protocols of each agent are designed using local information and a detailed analysis of the leader-following consensus is presented. Some numerical simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.ITERATIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF CONTINUOUS G-FUSION FRAMES IN HILBERT SPACES
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3506.html
Regarding the applications of the fusion frames and generalization of them in data proceeding, their iterative is of particular importance when one of their members is deleted. In this note, a methodfor reconstruction of continuous generalized fusion frames and the erroroperator with its upper bound are presented. Also, the approximationoperator for these frames will be introduced.On generalized statistical limit points for triple sequence in random 2-normed spaces
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3507.html
In this paper, we define and study the concept of $\mathcal{I}_{3}$-limit points and $\mathcal{I}_{3}$-cluster points of triple sequences in the topology induced by random $2$-normed spaces. We discuss the relationship between $\mathcal{I}_{3}$-cluster points and limit points and prove some important results.Superconvergence and linear stability of multistep collocation method applied to Volterra integral equations with delay function θ(t)
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3541.html
The main purpose of this paper is to propose the superconvergence and linear stability analysis of multistep collocation method which depend on r fixed number ofprevious time steps and m collocation points to solve the Volterra integral equationsof the second kind with nonlinear and non-vanishing delay. P. Darania and et al., constructed the multistep collocation method to solve a general class of nonlineardelay integral equations including two types of linear and nonlinear lag function &theta;(t)and investigated the convergence analysis of this method. This method have uniformorder m + r for any choice of collocation parameters. In this paper we shows that,the constructed method have a high uniform order of superconvergence (2m + 2r &minus; 1)together with strong stability properties. Numerical examples are presented to confirmthis theoretical predictiont.Note on "Mathematical modeling of dynamics behavior of terrorism and control"
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3542.html
&lrm;This note deals with some flaws in a recent paper by&lrm; &lrm;Gambo and Olarewaju &lrm;(CJMS&lrm;. &lrm;9(1)&lrm;, &lrm;2020&lrm;, &lrm;68-85)&lrm;. &lrm;It pinpoints the logic error in the proof of Theorem 3.2 in that paper and discusses some corrective works.Numerical Solution of Linear PDEs Using Chebyshev Differentiation Matrices
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3663.html
In this paper, we present Chebyshev spectral collocation method to the solve linear partial differentialequations (PDEs) with variable coefficients subject to a given initial and boundary conditions. First,we introduce an approximation to the unknown function and its derivatives by using Chebyshev differentiation matrices. Secondly, the operational matrix of differentiation and Chebyshev polynomialsare used to convert our problem to a system of linear equations. Finally, the effectiveness of themethod is illustrated in numerical experiment such as Poisson equation.Q-soft R-Submodules and their properties
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3664.html
We introduce the concept of Q-soft R- submodules overa commutative ring. Some Properties of Q-soft R- submodules areinvestigated. In particular, we consider properties of intersectionand direct sum for Q-soft R- submodules.Hypergroups associated to dominating sets
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3665.html
The study of hyperstructures derived from particular mathematical objects is very important and interesting. Graph theory has been established as a fundamental and important tool for solving practical problems in other branches of mathematics. This paper can be considered as one of the connections between hyperstructures and graph theory. In this way, by using the dominating set notion of a graph, we define a hyperoperation on verticals of it and study its properties and then we construct a hypergroup based on this hyperoperation. This hypergroup is presented for some classes of graphs.Nonuniform Dual Wavelets Associated with Linear Canonical Transform
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3666.html
A generalization of Mallat&rsquo;s classical multiresolution analysis, based on the theory of spectral pairs, was considered in two articles by Gabardo and Nashed. In this setting, the associated translation set is no longer a discrete subgroup of R but a spectrum associated with a certain one-dimensional spectral pair and the associated dilation is an even positive integer related to the given spectral pair. In this paper, we are interested in the dual wavelets whose construction depends on nonuniform multiresolution analysis associated with linear canonical transform. Here we prove that if the translates of the scaling functions of two multiresolution analyses in linear canonical transform settings are biorthogonal, so are the wavelet families which are associated with them. Under mild assumptions on the scaling functions and the wavelets, we also show that the wavelets generate Riesz bases