Caspian Journal of Mathematical Sciences (CJMS)peer
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/
Caspian Journal of Mathematical Sciences (CJMS)peerendaily1Tue, 01 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0430Tue, 01 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0430On character projectivity Of Banach modules
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2544.html
Let $A$ be a Banach algebra, $\Omega(A)$ be the character space of $A$ and $\alpha\in\Omega(A)$. In this paper, we examine the characteristics of $\alpha$-projective (injective) $A$-modules and demonstrate that these character-based $A$-modules also satisfy well-known classical homological properties on Banach $A$-modules.A short remark on the result of Jozsef Sandor
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2553.html
It is pointed out that, one of the results in the recently published article, &rsquo;On the Iyengar-Madhava Rao-Nanjundiah inequality and it&rsquo;s hyperbolic version&rsquo; [3] by J&acute;ozsef S&acute;andor is logically incorrect and new corrected result with it&rsquo;s proof is presented.Heat and mass transfer analysis on MHD peristaltic motion of solid particles in a dusty fluid
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_1895.html
In this article, effects of heat and mass transfer on MHD peristaltic motion of solid particles in a dusty fluid has been investigated. The effects of nonlinear thermal radiation and Hall Effect are also taken into account. The relevant flow analysis is modelled for fluid phase and dust phase in wave frame. Computation of solutions is presented for velocity profile, temperature profile and concentration profile. The impact of all the physical parameters such as particle volume fraction, Hartmann number, Hall Effect, Prandtl number, Eckert number, Schmidt number and Soret number are discussed mathematically and graphically. It is noted that the influence of magnetic field and particle volume fraction opposes the flow. Also, the impact of particle volume fraction is quite opposite on temperature and concentration profile.Composition operators between growth spaces on circular and strictly convex domains in complex Banach spaces
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2537.html
&lrm;Let $\Omega_X$ be a bounded&lrm;, &lrm;circular and strictly convex domain in a complex Banach space $X$&lrm;, &lrm;and $\mathcal{H}(\Omega_X)$ be the space of all holomorphic functions from $\Omega_X$ to $\mathbb{C}$&lrm;. &lrm;The growth space $\mathcal{A}^\nu(\Omega_X)$ consists of all $f\in\mathcal{H}(\Omega_X)$&lrm; &lrm;such that $$|f(x)|\leqslant C \nu(r_{\Omega_X}(x)),\quad x\in \Omega_X,$$&lrm; &lrm;for some constant $C&gt;0$&lrm;, &lrm;whenever $r_{\Omega_X}$ is the Minkowski&lrm; &lrm;functional on $\Omega_X$ and $\nu&lrm; :&lrm;[0,1)\rightarrow(0,\infty)$&lrm; &lrm;is a nondecreasing&lrm;, &lrm;continuous and unbounded function&lrm;. &lrm;For complex Banach spaces $X$ and $Y$&lrm; &lrm;and a holomorphic map $\varphi:\Omega_X\rightarrow\Omega_Y$&lrm;, &lrm;put&lrm; &lrm;$C_\varphi( f)=f\circ \varphi,f\in\mathcal{H}(\Omega_Y)$&lrm;. &lrm;We characterize those $\varphi$ for which the composition operator&lrm; &lrm;$ C_\varphi:\mathcal{A}^{\omega}(\Omega_Y)\rightarrow\mathcal{A}^{\nu}(\Omega_X)$ is a bounded or compact operator&lrm;.Curves and helix hypersurfaces in Euclidean spaces
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_1898.html
In this paper, we investigate the special curves and the ruled surfaces on the helix hypersurface whose tangent space makes constant angle with a fixed direction in Euclidean -space and give requirement of being developable of the ruled surfaces. Also, we construct the helix surface generated by a plane curve in Euclidean 3-space and give requirement of being a minimal surface of the surface.Oplus-supplemented modules with respect to images of a fully invariant submodule
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2543.html
Lifting modules and their various generalizations as some main concepts in module theory have been studied and investigated extensively in recent decades. Some authors tried to present some homological aspects of lifting modules and -supplemented modules. In this work, we shall present a homological approach to -supplemented modules via fully invariant submodules. Lifting modules and H-supplemented modules with respect to images of a xed fully invariant submodule of a module where investigated in rst author's last works. We intend here to introduce and study a module M such that '(F) has a supplement as a direct summand for every endomorphism ' of M where F is a xed fully invariant submodule of M.The Generalized difference of $d \left(\chi^{3\textit{I}}\right)$ of fuzzy real numbers over $p$ metric spaces defined by Musielak Orlicz function
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_1902.html
In this article we introduce the sequence spaces $\left[\chi^{3q}_{f\mu },\left\|\left(d\left(x_{1}\right),d\left(x_{2}\right),\cdots, d\left(x_{n-1}\right)\right)\right\|_{p}\right]^{\textit{I}\left(F\right)}$ and $\left[\Lambda^{3q}_{f\mu },\left\|\left(d\left(x_{1}\right),d\left(x_{2}\right),\cdots, d\left(x_{n-1}\right)\right)\right\|_{p}\right]^{\textit{I}\left(F\right)},$ associated with the differential operator of sequence space defined by Musielak. We study some basic topological and algebraic properties of these spaces. We also investigate some inclusion relations related to these spaces.On the stability of multi-m-Jensen mappings
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2777.html
In this article, we introduce the multi-$m$-Jensen mappings and characterize them as a single equation. Using a fixed point theorem, we study the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability for such mappings. As a consequence, we show that every multi-$m$-Jensen mappings (under some conditions) is hyperstable.An introduction to topological hyperrings
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2752.html
In this paper, we define topological hyperrings and study their basic concepts which supported by illustrative examples. We show some differences between topological rings and topological hyperrings. Also, by the fundamental relation $\Gamma^{*}$, we indicate the role of complete parts (saturated subsets) and complete hyperrings in topological hyperrings and specially we show that if every (closed) open subset is a complete part in a topological complete hyperring then its fundamental ring is a topological ring. Finally, we study the quotient topology induced by $\Gamma^{*}$-relation on an associated Krasner hyperring obtained by a ring and show that it is isomorphic to a quotient space of the ring by its ideals.Inverse scattering problem for the Impulsive Schrodinger equation with a polynomial spectral dependence in the potential
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2378.html
In the present work, under some di&curren;erentiability conditions on the potential functions , we rst reduce the inverse scattering problem (ISP) for the polynomial pencil of the Scroedinger equation to the corresponding ISP for the generalized matrix Scr&ouml;dinger equation . Then ISP will be solved in analogy of the Marchenko method. We aim to establish an e&curren;ective algorithm for uniquely reconstructing of the potential functions of the equation in that case when there is no a discrete spectrumHigh order quadrature based iterative method for approximating the solution of nonlinear equations
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2939.html
In this paper, weight function and composition technique is utilized to speeds up the convergence order and increase the efficiency of an existing quadrature based iterative method. This results in the proposition of its improved form from a two-point quadrature based method of convergence order &rho; = 3 with efficiency index EI = 1:3161 to a three-point method of convergence order &rho; = 8 with EI = 1:5157 at the cost of one additional function evaluation. The method is used to approximate the solution of some nonlinear equations and the results generated are compared with that of some existing methods. Numerical results shows that method developed herein is very efficient in approximation of solution of nonlinear equations.On composition of generating functions
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2938.html
In this work we study numbers and polynomials generated by two type of composition of generating functions and get their explicit formulae. Furthermore we state an improvementof the composita formulae's given in [6] and [3], using the new composita formula's we construct a variety of combinatorics identities. This study go alone to dene new family of generalized Bernoulli polynomials which include Hermite-Bernoulli polynomials introduced by G. Dattoli and al [1].Berezin number inequalities involving superquadratic functions
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2379.html
We consider superquadratic functions f and define selfadjoint operators f(A) from some selfadjoint operators A on a reproducing kernel Hilbert space H=H(Q). We estimate the so-called Berezin number of operator f(A).Schwarz boundary problem on a triangle
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2339.html
In this paper, the Schwarz boundary value problem (BVP) for the inhomogeneous Cauchy-Riemann equation in a triangle is investigated explicitly. Firstly, by the technique of parquetingreflection and the Cauchy-Pompeiu representation formula a modified Cauchy-Schwarz representation formula is obtained. Then, the solution of the Schwarz BVP is explicitly solved. In particular, the boundary behaviors at the corner points are considered.Some geometrical properties of the oscillator group
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2577.html
&lrm;We consider the oscillator group equipped with&lrm; &lrm;a biinvariant Lorentzian metric&lrm;. &lrm;Some geometrical properties of this space and the harmonicity properties of left-invariant vector fields on this space are determined&lrm;. &lrm;In some cases&lrm;, &lrm;all these vector fields are critical points for the energy functional&lrm; &lrm;restricted to vector fields&lrm;. &lrm;Left-invariant vector fields defining harmonic maps are also classified&lrm;, &lrm;and the energy of these vector&lrm; &lrm;fields is explicitly calculat&lrm;e&lrm;d.Group analysis of time-fractional equation with Riemann-Liouville derivative
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2425.html
Finding Lie symmetries of nonlinear fractional differential equations plays an important role in studying fractional differential equations. The purpose of this manuscript is to find the Lie point symmetries of the time-fractional Buckmaster equation. After that we use the innitesimal generators for obtaining their corresponding invariant solutions.Existence results for hybrid fractional differential equations with Hilfer fractional derivative
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2420.html
This paper investigates the solvability, existence and uniqueness of solutions for a class of nonlinear fractional hybrid differential equations with Hilfer fractional derivative in a weighted normed space. The main result is proved by means of a fixed point theorem due to Dhage. An example to illustrate the results is included.Solving fuzzy multi objective liner programming problems: an α-cut approach
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2437.html
In this paper, as an extension of Pareto optimality concepts for multi objective programming problems to fuzzy multi objective linear programming (FMOLP) problems, different types of Pareto optimal solutions (POSs), namely, weakly, strictly, and properly POSs are defined on the basis of &alpha;-cuts of fuzzy numbers. Then a method for solving FMOLP problems is proposed to obtain them. It is shown that they can be obtained by solving some non fuzzy multi objective linear programming problems. A numerical example is solved to illustrate the method.Cohomology of aff(1|1) acting on the space of bilinear differential operators on the superspace IR1|1
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2545.html
We consider the aff(1)-module structure on the spaces of bilinear diﬀerential operators acting on the spaces of weighted densities. We compute the ﬁrst diﬀerential cohomology of the Lie superalgebra aff(1) with coeﬃcients in space D&lambda;,&nu;;&micro; of bilinear diﬀerential operators acting on weighted densities. We study also the super analogue of this problem getting the same results.Some results on Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities with respect to fractional integrals
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2471.html
In this paper, we establish Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for uniformly p-convex functions. Also, a new fractional Hermite-Hadamard type inequality for convex functions is obtained by using only the left Riemann-Liouville fractional integral. Finally some extimation of left fractional integration studies for Hermite- Hadamard type inequalities.Application of Legendre operational matrix to solution of two dimensional nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equation
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2363.html
In this article, we apply the operational matrix to find the numerical solution of two- dimensional nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equation (2DNVIDE). Form this prospect, two-dimensional shifted Legendre functions (2DSLFs) has been presented for integration, product as well as differentiation. This method converts 2DNVIDE to an algebraic system of equations, so the numerical solution of 2DNVIDE is computable. The effectiveness and accuracy of the method were examined with some examples as well. The results and comparison with other methods have shown a remarkable performance.Non-trivial solutions for a discrete nonlinear boundary value problem with $\phi_c$-Laplacian
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2472.html
In this paper, we prove the existence of at least one non-trivial solution for a discrete nonlinear boundary value problem with $\phi_c$-Laplacian. The approach is based on variational methods.On the D-concircular curvature tensor of a generalized Sasakian-Space-form
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2515.html
The object of this paper is to study of D-concircular curvature tensor on generalized Sasakian-space-forms. Actually we consider generalized Sasakian-space-forms when it is, respectively: D-concircularly flat; D-concircular-pseudosymmetric; D-concircularly Ricci-semisymmetric; D-concircularly symmetric; $V (\xi;X) .R = 0$. Most of the main results obtained in this paper are in the form of necessary and sufficient conditions.Some Results on Soft Hypervector Spaces
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2516.html
In this paper, some basic properties of soft hypervector spaces are studied with respect to some well-known operations such as intersection, union, AND, OR, product and sum. Also, the behavior of them is investigated under linear transformations and b-linear transformations.Bayesian two-sample prediction problem for the Rayleigh distribution under progressively Type-II censoring with random removals
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2542.html
&lrm;In this paper&lrm;, &lrm;we study the &lrm;prediction problem in the two-sample case for predicting future progressively Type-II censored order statistics based on observed progressively Type-II censored order statistics with random removals from the Rayleigh distribution&lrm;. &lrm;We consider two important distributions for random removals&lrm;, binomial and discrete uniform distributions&lrm;. &lrm;In both cases&lrm;, &lrm;Bayesian point and interval predictors are obtained&lrm;. &lrm;In the following&lrm;, &lrm;through a simulation study&lrm;, &lrm;the results are compared to each other&lrm;. &lrm;Finally&lrm;, &lrm;a real data set is given to \textcolor{red}{illustrate} the output results&lrm;.Solving Defender-Attacker Game with Multiple Decision Makers Using Expected-Value Model
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2546.html
Defender-attacker game is a model for conflicting between a defender and an attacker. Defender tries to prevent attacking an opponent by assigning limited security resources. In real world the utility values of the defender-attacker game are assigned by experts which usually are uncertain. According to that the assigned values by several experts may be slightly different and conflicting, we consider a set of all their viewpoints. This approach is similar to hesitant fuzzy environment. Also, each of the experts may have the different weights; AHP method is used to determine the weights of each of the experts. A weighted sum method is applied to obtain a game with aggregated payoffs. An expected value of the fuzzy numbers is introduced to convert the problem into defender-attacker game with interval payoffs. According to this, we proposed a method to solve security game in fuzzy environment. It is shown that the optimal solution of the expected value model is the optimal solution of the original model. Finally, a practical example is illustrated to solve by the proposed method.A Meshless Method for Numerical Solutions of Non-Homogeneous Differential Equation with Variable Delays
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2578.html
This paper is devoted to solve a class of differential equation with simultaneously combining variable coeffcients and variable delays namely variable-delay dierential equations (VDDEs). For this purpose, a numerical method is proposed in which the unknown function and its derivative are approximated with the basis of interpolating Multiquadric radial basis functions (MQRBFs) at arbitrary collocation points. According to the existing mechanism, the synchronization problem is recast to a system of algebraic equations. In the other hand, the proposed method provides a very adjustable framework for approximation according to the discretization and due to a board range of arbitrary nodes. Finally, some illustrative examples are given to verify the validity and applicability of the new technique and also a comparison between our results and the existing studies is performed.A numerical method for solving singularly perturbed differential-difference equation arising in the modeling of neuronal variability
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2587.html
In this paper, an efficient procedure based on the multiquadric radial basis functions (RBFs) collocation method is applied for the numerical so- lution of the singularly perturbed differential-difference (SPDDE) equation. The method is coupled with the Residual subsampling algorithm for sup- port adaptivity. The problem considered in this paper shows turning point behavior which is added to the complexity in the construction of numerical approximation to the solution of the problem. The proposed algorithm is very simple to perform. Some numerical examples are given to validate the computational efficacy of the suggested numerical scheme.F -Sums of Graphs and their Reformulated-Zagreb Indices
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2588.html
The reformulated Zagreb index EM1(G) of a simple graph G is defined as the sum of the terms (du + dv &minus; 2)2 over all edges uv of G. In this paper, we study the reformulated Zagreb indices for the F -sums of some special well-known graphs such as subdivision and total graph which is introduced by Eliasi and Taeri [2].Multi-step conformable fractional differential transform method for solving and stability of the conformable fractional differential systems
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2964.html
&lrm;In this article&lrm;, &lrm;the multi-step conformable fractional differential transform method (MSCDTM) is applied to give approximate solutions of the conformable fractional-order differential systems&lrm;. &lrm;Moreover&lrm;, &lrm;we check the stability of conformable fractional-order L\"{u} system with the MSCDTM to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed procedure.Liapounoff's type numbers for a homogeneous linear system of fractional order
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2655.html
In this paper, first we consider a homogeneous linear system of fractional order 0&lt;\alpha \leq 1. Next, Liapounoff's type numbers of solutions of this system is proposed. Also, the previous results are a special case of our results.coretractable modules relative to delta
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2714.html
Let R be a ring and M a right R-module. We call M, a \delta(M)-coretractable module if for every proper submodule N of M containing \delta(M), there is a nonzero homomorphism from M=N to M. We investigate some conditions which under two concepts \delta(M)-coretractable and coretractable coincide. For a ring R, we prove that R is right Kasch if and only if R_R is \delta(R-R)-coretractable.GOLDEN NUMBERS
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2715.html
&lrm;The golden ratio $\phi=\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}=1/61803398874...$ is the root of the polynomial $x^2-x-1=0$&lrm;, &lrm;and is the one of the important numbers in mathematics&lrm;. &lrm;The golden ratio is also used in many fields of science&lrm;. &lrm;The golden ratio appears in some patterns in nature&lrm;, &lrm;including the spiral arrangement of leaves and other plant parts&lrm;. &lrm;In this paper&lrm;, &lrm;we present a sequence of golden numbers $\{\phi_n\}_n$ and study their properties&lrm;.One Dimensional Dirac Operators on Time Scales
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2721.html
In this work, we study some spectral properties of one dimensional Dirac system, such as formally self-adjointness, orthogonality of eigenfunctions, Green's function, existence of a countable sequence of eigenvalues. Later, we give an expansion formula in eigenfunctions for Dirac operator on time scales. These results will provide an important contribution to the spectral theory of such operators on time scales.The converse of Baer's theorem for two-nilpotent variety
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2732.html
In this paper the generalization of the converse of Baer's theorem for two-nilpotent variety of class row $(n,m)$. is carried out. Baer proved that finiteness of $G/Z_n(G)$ implies that $\gamma_{n+1}(G)$ is finite. Hekster proved the converse of the Baer's theorem with the assumption that $G$ can be finitely generated. The Baer's theorem can be considered as a result of a classical theorem by Schur denoting that finiteness of $G/Z(G)$ leads to the finiteness of $G'$. The converse of the Baer's theorem has been proved conditionally by Taghavi et al. (2019), as well. In the Main Theorem, we prove that, if $\gamma_{m,n}(G)\cap Z_{n,m}(G)=1$ and $\gamma_{m,n+i}(G)$ is finite for some $n,i,m \geq 0$. Then $G/Z_{n,m}(G)$ is finite. In this article some other results are attained by the converse of the Baer's theorem. It is also concluded that when $n=m=1$. Similar results are obtained for variety of the soluble groups. In addition, the converse of the Schur's theorem which proved by Halasi and Podoski is concluded in this paper, for two-nilpotent variety. We have also obtained some similar results of Chakaneh et al. (2019) for $(n,m)$-isoclinic family of groups and $(1,m)$-stem groups.Stability of Sacks-Uhlenbeck Biharmonic Maps
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2751.html
In this paper, the first and second variation formulas of the Sacks-Uhlenbeck bienergy functional is obtained. As an application, instability and non-existence theorems for Sacks-Uhlenbeck biharmonic maps are given.Construction of Closure Operations in a Category of Presheaves
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2782.html
We construct some types of universal closure operations induced by certain collection of morphisms. For this purpose, we use Lawvere-Tierney topologies and universal closure operations that correspond to each other to establish the equivalent conditions over the collection of morphisms. In this way we use multiple sieves instead of principal sieves for constructing results. Examples are also given to illustrate the established results.$k$-distance enclaveless number of a graph
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2783.html
For an integer $k\geq1$, a $k$-distance enclaveless number (or $k$-distance $B$-differential) of a connected graph $G=(V,E)$ is $\Psi^k(G)=max\{|(V-X)\cap N_{k,G}(X)|:X\subseteq V\}$. In this paper, we establish upper bounds on the $k$-distance enclaveless number of a graph in terms of its diameter, radius and girth. Also, we prove that for connected graphs $G$ and $H$ with orders $n$ and $m$ respectively, $\Psi^k(G\times H)\leq mn-n-m+\Psi^k(G)+\Psi^k(H)+1$, where $G\times H$ denotes the direct product of $G$ and $H$. In the end of this paper, we show that the $k$-distance enclaveless number $\Psi^k(T)$ of a tree $T$ on $n\geq k+1$ vertices and with $n_1$ leaves satisfies inequality $\Psi^k(T)\leq\frac{k(2n-2+n_1)}{2k+1}$ and we characterize the extremal trees.A note on some parameters of domination on the edge neighborhood graph of a graph
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2784.html
The edge neighborhood graph N_{e}(G) of a simple graph G is the graph with the vertex set E &cup; S where S is the set of all open edge neighborhood sets of G and two vertices u,v &isin; V (N_e{}(G)) adjacent if u &isin; E and v is an open edge neighborhood set containing u. In this paper, we determine the domination number, the total domination number, the independent domination number and the 2-domination number in the edge neighborhood graph. We also obtain a 2-domination polynomial of the edge neighborhood graph for some certain graphs.Inverse Connective Eccentricity Index and its Applications
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2785.html
The inverse connective eccentricity index of a connected graph G is defined as &xi;&minus;1 ce (G) =P u&isin;V(G)ǫG(u)dG(u) , where ǫG(u) and dG(u) are the eccentricity and degree of a vertex u in G,respectively. In this paper, we obtain an upper bounds for inverse connective eccentricity indices for various classes of graphs such as generalized hierarchical product graph and F-sum of graphs.On strongly PI-lifting modules
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2801.html
In this paper, the class of strongly PI-lifting modules is introduced and investigated. The connections between strongly PI-lifting modules and the generalizations of lifting modules are presented. We provide that the class of strongly PI-lifting modules is contained in the class of PI-lifting modules. Moreover, it is proved that for an Abelian ring R, R is PI-lifting as a right R-module if and only if R=I has a projective cover for every right ideal I of R. The structural properties of strongly PI-lifting modules are determined, and examples are provided to exhibit and delimit our results.Concerning strongly divisible, strongly fixed, and strongly $z$-ideals in $\mathcal{R}L$
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2802.html
As usual, the ring of continuous real-valued functions on a frame $L$ is denoted by $\mathcal{R}L$. We determine the relation among strongly $z$-ideals, strongly divisible ideals and uniformly closed ideals in the ring $\mathcal{R}L$. We characterize Lindel\"of frames based on strongly fixed ideals in $\mathcal{R}L$. We observe that a weakly spatial frame $L$ is Lindel\"of if and if every strongly divisible ideal in $\mathcal{R}L$ is strongly fixed; if and only if every closed ideal in $\mathcal{R}L$ is strongly fixed.The induced contractive maps on the covering spaces
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2812.html
&lrm; &lrm;Let $(\tilde{X},p)$ be the universal covering space of a compact metrizable space $ X $&lrm;, &lrm;which is compact and locally path connected&lrm;. &lrm;In this paper&lrm;, &lrm;we show that there exist metrics $ d $ and $ d' $ for $ X $ and $\tilde{X} $&lrm;, &lrm;respectively&lrm;, &lrm;such that any contractive map &lrm;$ f:X\to X $ induces a contractive map on $ \tilde{X}$. &lrm;As an&lrm; application&lrm;, &lrm;it is obtained that every iterated function system(IFS) on the space $ X $ with attractor $ K $&lrm;, &lrm;induces an IFS on $\tilde{ X} $ with attractor $\tilde{K},$ such that $ p(\tilde{K})=K$&lrm;.Linear System of Equations with Doubly Stochastic Interval Coefficient Matrix
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2813.html
&lrm;In this paper&lrm;, &lrm;we first give an overview of doubly stochastic interval matrices&lrm;. &lrm;Then&lrm;, &lrm;we present some theories about the interval linear system whose coefficient matrix is doubly stochastic interval matrix&lrm;. &lrm;Also&lrm;, &lrm;we give an outer estimation for the solution set of these systems&lrm;.N− Transvectants
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2814.html
We consider the sl(2,R)-module structure on the spaces of n&minus;ary diﬀerential operators acting on the spaces of weighted densities. We classify sl(2,R)-invariant n&minus;ary diﬀerential operators acting on the spaces of weighted densities.ON BI-IDEAL ELEMENTS IN POE-AG-GROUPOID
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2819.html
In this paper we introduce the concept of ideal and bi-ideal elements in poe-AG-groupoid and give some characterizations and properties of their bi-ideal elements. So we consider some results concerning bi-ideals in poe-semigroups and investigate them in poe-AG-groupoids. Also, the class of bi-ideal elements of poe-AG-groupoids are studied, certain intrinsic and basic properties of poe-AG-groupoids including:∧-semilattice, bi-ideal, semiprime, weaklyprime, totallyorderedelements and etc. are studied as well. The corresponding results on poe-semigroups can be also obtained as application of the results of this paper.A modified forward-backward splitting method for sum of monotone operators and demicontractive mappings
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2958.html
In this paper, by using a modified forward-backward splitting method, the author introduces and studies an iterative algorithm for finding a common element of the set of fixed points of demicontractive mappings and the set of solutions of variational inclusion with set-valued maximal monotone mapping and inverse strongly monotone mappings in real Hilbert spaces.\,The author proves that the sequence $x_n$ which is generated by the proposed iterative algorithm converges strongly to a common element of two sets above. Finally, some applications are given.On Bounded Compact-Weak Approximate Identities
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2959.html
In this paper, we provide examples which show that there exists a type of approximate identity between the class of bounded weak approximate identities and bounded approximate identities.Some Special Identities for Jacobsthal and Jacobsthal-Lucas Generalized Octonions
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2960.html
We study on Jacobsthal and Jacobsthal-Lucas generalized octonions over the algebra O(a,b,c) where a,b and c are real numbers. We present Binet formulas for these types of octonions. Furthermore, we give some well-known identities such as Catalan's, Cassini's, d'Ocagne's identities and other special identities for Jacobsthal and Jacobsthal-Lucas generalized octonions.Ritz approximation for the fractional optimal control problems
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2961.html
The manuscript deals with the fractional optimal control problems (FOCPs) based on the Caputo fractional derivative by the Ritz method. To use this method, we transform the FOCPs into an optimization problem and obtain the system of nonlinear algebraic equations. By polynomial basis functions, we approximate solutions. Then, we have the coefficients of polynomial expansions by solving the system of nonlinear equations. Numerical examples are presented which illustrate the performance of the method.Shape Loop Space of Pro-discrete Spaces
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2962.html
In this paper, considering the kth shape loop space for an HPol-expansion p of a pointed topological space (X; x), First we prove that &Omega;k commutes with the product under some conditions and then we show that &Omega;p, for a pro-discrete space (X; x) =lim(Xi; xi) of compact polyhedra. Finally, we conclude that these spaces are metric, second countable and separable.Fitted Numerical Scheme for Singularly Perturbed Differential Equations Having Two Small Delays
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2963.html
In this paper, singularly perturbed differential equations having delay on the convection and reaction terms are considered. The highest order derivative term in the equation is multiplied by a perturbation parameter \epsilon taking arbitrary values in the interval (0; 1]. For small \epsilon, the problem involves a boundary layer on the left or right side of the domain depending on the sign of the coefficient of the convective term. The terms involving the delay are approximated using Taylor series approximation. The resulting singularly perturbed boundary value problem is treated using exponentially fitted upwind finite difference method. The stability of the proposed scheme is analysed and investigated using maximum principle and barrier functions for solution bound. The formulated scheme converges independent of the perturbation parameter with rate of convergence O(N&minus;1). Richardson extrapolation technique is applied to accelerate the rate of convergence of the scheme to order O(N&minus;2). To validate the theoretical finding, three model examples having boundary layer behaviour are considered. The maximum absolute error and rate of convergence of the scheme are computed. The proposed scheme gives accurate and parameter uniformly convergent result.Realizable List by Circulant and Skew-Circulant Matrices
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2982.html
&lrm;In this paper for two given sets of eigenvalues&lrm;, &lrm;which one of them is the eigenvalues of circulant matrix and the other is the eigenvalues of skew-circulant matrix&lrm;, &lrm;we find a nonnegative matrix&lrm;, &lrm;such that the union of two sets be the spectrum of nonnegative matrices&lrm;.Extension of topological derived set operator and topological closure set operator via a class of sets to construct generalized topologies
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2983.html
In this paper we intend to extract some types of generalized topologies from a topological space. To do this, we first generalize the derived set operator and the closure operator of a topological space using a class of subsets of the space, this collection is called the hereditary family since it is closed under the operation subset. The generalized closure operator induces a structure that is our desired generalized topology.Some properties of certain subclass of meromorphic functions associated with q -derivative
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2991.html
&lrm;In this paper&lrm;, &lrm;by making use of q -derivative we introduce a new subclass of meromorphically univalent functions&lrm;. &lrm;Precisely&lrm;, &lrm;we give a necessary and sufficient coefficient condition for functions in this class&lrm;. &lrm;Coefficient estimates&lrm;, &lrm;extreme points&lrm;, &lrm;convex linear combination Radii of starlikeness and convexity and finally partial sum property are investigated&lrm;.A Role of Fuzzy Set-Valued Maps in Integral Inclusions
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_2992.html
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of $\alpha$-continuity, $\eta$-admissible pair for fuzzy set-valued maps and define a notion of fuzzy $\eta-(\psi, F)$-contraction. The existence of common fuzzy fixed points for such contraction is investigated in the setting of a complete metric space. The ideas presented herein complement the results of Wardowski, Banach, Heilpern and other results on point-to-point and point-to-set-valued mappings in the comparable literature of metric and fuzzy fixed point theory. A few important of these consequences of our results are highlighted and discussed. Some nontrivial examples and an application to a system of integral inclusions of Fredholm type are considered to support our theorems and to illustrate a usability of the results obtained herein.Is There Any Digital Pseudocovering Map?
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3015.html
&lrm;This paper is devoted to the notion digital pseudocovering map introduced by Han \cite{H4}&lrm;. &lrm;We show that considered conditions in definition of digital pseudocovering map are incompatible unless the map be a covering map&lrm;. &lrm;Then we will modify the definition so that the results remain true&lrm;.WEAK TOPOLOGICAL CENTERS AND COHOMOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3051.html
Let $B$ be a Banach $A-bimodule$. We introduce the weak topological centers of left module action and we show it by $\tilde{{Z}}^\ell_{B^{**}}(A^{**})$. For a compact group, we show that $L^1(G)=\tilde{Z}_{M(G)^{**}}^\ell(L^1(G)^{**})$ and on the other hand we have $\tilde{Z}_1^\ell{(c_0^{**})}\neq c_0^{**}$. Thus the weak topological centers are different with topological centers of left or right module actions. In this manuscript, we investigate the relationships between two concepts with some conclusions in Banach algebras. We also have some application of this new concept and topological centers of module actions in the cohomological properties of Banach algebras, spacial, in the weak amenability and $n$-weak amenability of Banach algebras.Fixed point results for Geraghty contractive type operators in uniform spaces
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3052.html
In this paper, we consider a generalization of $\alpha$-$\phi$-Geraghty contractive type operators and investigate the conditions for the existence and uniqueness of fixed point in a $S$-complete Hausdorff uniform space equipped with a $E$-distance. Our results extend, improve and generalize some related works in the literature. We illustrate the validity of the results with examples.Wreath product of permutation groups and their actions on a sets
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3053.html
The object of wreath product of permutation groups is defined the actions on cartesian product of two sets. In this paper we consider S(&Gamma;) and S(&Delta;) be permutation groups on &Gamma; and &Delta; respectively, and S(&Gamma;)^{&Delta;} be the set of all maps of &Delta; into the permutations group S(&Gamma;). That is S(&Gamma;)^{&Delta;}={f:&Delta;&rarr;S(&Gamma;)}. S(&Gamma;)^{&Delta;} is a group with respect to the multiplication defined by for all &delta; in &Delta; by (f₁f₂)(&delta;)=f₁(&delta;)f₂(&delta;). After that, we introduce the notion of S(&Delta;) actions on S(&Gamma;)^{&Delta;} : S(&Delta;)&times;S(&Gamma;)^{&Delta;}&rarr;S(&Gamma;)^{&Delta;},(s,f)↦s&sdot;f=f^{s}, where f^{s}(&delta;)=(f∘s⁻&sup1;)(&delta;)=(fs⁻&sup1;)(&delta;) for all &delta;&isin;&Delta;. Finaly, we give the wreath product W of S(&Gamma;) by S(&Delta;), and the action of W on &Gamma;&times;&Delta;.Soft∗∗ b Open Sets in Binary Soft Topological Structure
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3054.html
This paper introduces an application of soft &lowast;&lowast; b open sets in soft binary topology. An important outcome of this work is a formal framework for the study of information associated with ordered pairs of soft sets. Five main results concerning binary soft topological spaces are given in this paper.Some geometrical properties of Berger Spheres
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3055.html
&lrm;Our aim in this paper is to investigate some geometrical properties of Berger spheres i&lrm;.e.&lrm;,&lrm; &lrm;homogeneous&lrm; &lrm;Ricci solitons and harmonicity properties of invariant vector fields&lrm;. &lrm;We determine all vector fields&lrm;,&lrm; which are critical points for the energy&lrm; &lrm;functional restricted to vector fields of the same length&lrm;. &lrm;We also see that do&lrm;&lrm; not exist any vector fields defining harmonic map&lrm;, &lrm;and the energy of critical points is explicitly calculated.Some Inequalities On The Order of The Higher Multiplier of Groups
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3205.html
The notion of the Schur multiplier of a pair of groups was introduced by Ellis.Authors generalized the concept of the Schur multiplier of a pair of groups to the c-nilpotent multiplier of a pair of groups.In this paper , we prove some inequalities for the order of the c-nilpotent multiplier of a pair of groups.Length and Mean Fuzzy UP-subalgebras of UP-algebras
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3269.html
The aim of this paper is to introduce the notions of the length and the mean of a hyper structure in UP-algebras. The notions of length fuzzy UP-subalgebras and mean fuzzy UP-subalgebras of UP-algebras are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of length fuzzy UP-subalgebras and mean fuzzy UP-subalgebras are discussed. Relations between length fuzzy UP-subalgebras (resp., mean fuzzy UP-subalgebras) and hyperfuzzy UP-subalgebras are established. Moreover, we discuss the relationships among length fuzzy UP-subalgebras (resp., mean fuzzy UP-subalgebras) and upper level subsets, lower level subsets, and equal level subsets of the length (resp., mean) of a fuzzy structure in UP-algebras.Coefficient estimates and Fekete-Szeg\"{o} coefficient inequality for new subclasses of Bi-univalent
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3272.html
In this paper, we investigate two new subclasses $S^*_\sigma(a, b)$ and $\nu_\sigma(a, b)$ of $\sigma$ consisting of analytic and bi-univalent functions satisfying subordinations in the open unit disk $\mathbb{U}$. We consider the Fekete-Szeg\"{o} inequalities for these new subclasses. Also, we establish estimates for the coefficient for these subclasses.Fuzzy decisive set method for solving multiobjective linear programming problem with intuitionistic fuzzy parameters as a new approach
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3273.html
In this article, we construct a new computational algorithm for solving multiobjective linear programming problem in intuitionistic fuzzy environment. The resources and technological coefficients are taken to be intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Here, the intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective linear programming problem is transformed into an equivalent crisp multi-objective linear programming problem. By using fuzzy mathematical programming approach, the transformed multiobjective linear programming problem is reduced into a single objective nonlinear and non-convex programming problem. Stepwise algorithm is given for solving an intuitionistic fuzzy multiobjective linear programming problem and it is checked with a numerical example using intuitionistic fuzzy decisive set method.Strongly hollow elements in the lattices
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3278.html
Let $L$ be a lattice with the greatest element 1. Following the concept of strongly hollow elements of commutative rings, we define strongly hollow elements of lattices and we will make an intensive investigate the basic properties and possible structures of these elements.HAMILTONIAN CYCLE IN THE POWER GRAPH OF DIRECT PRODUCT TWO p-GROUPS OF PRIME EXPONENTS
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3279.html
The power graph P(G) of a finite group G is a graph whose vertex set is the group G and distinct elements x; y are adjacent if one is a power of the other. Suppose that G = P * Q, where P (resp. Q) is a finite p-group (resp. q-group) of exponent p (resp. q) for distinct prime numbers p &lt; q. In this paper, we determine necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of Hamiltonian cycles in P(G).Reverses of Féjer's Inequalities for Convex Functions
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3280.html
Let f be a convex function on I and a, b&isin;I with a 0 &le;(1/2)&int;_{a}^{b}|t-((a+b)/2)|p(t)dt[f₊&prime;(((a+b)/2))-f₋&prime;(((a+b)/2))] &le;&int;_{a}^{b}p(t)f(t)dt-(&int;_{a}^{b}p(t)dt)f(((a+b)/2)) &le;(1/2)&int;_{a}^{b}|t-((a+b)/2)|p(t)dt[f₋&prime;(b)-f₊&prime;(a)] and 0 &le;(1/2)&int;_{a}^{b}[(1/2)(b-a)-|t-((a+b)/2)|]p(t)dt[f₊&prime;(((a+b)/2))-f₋&prime;(((a+b)/2))] &le;(&int;_{a}^{b}p(t)dt)((f(a)+f(b))/2)-&int;_{a}^{b}p(t)f(t)dt &le;(1/2)&int;_{a}^{b}[(1/2)(b-a)-|t-((a+b)/2)|]p(t)dt[f₋&prime;(b)-f₊&prime;(a)].Existence and uniqueness of solutions for neutral periodic integro-differential equations with infinite delay on time scale
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3281.html
Let T be a periodic time scale. We study the following nonlinear neutral dynamic equation with infinite delay 〖x(t)〗^∆=G(t,x(t),x(t-&tau;(t)))+〖Q(t,x(t-&tau;(t)))〗^∆+&int;_(-&infin;)^t▒(&sum;_(i=1)^p▒〖D_i (t,s) 〗)f(x(s)) ∆s by using a fixed point theorem due to Krasnoselskii, we show that the nonlinear neutral dynamic equation with an infinite delay has a periodic solution. In addition, through utilizing the contraction mapping principle, we have shown that this periodic solution is unique.Mathematical Analysis for Oncolytic Virotherapy, Considering the Role of the Lytic Cycle in the Presence of Immune System Response
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3282.html
The immune system of the cancer patient's body and the viral lytic cycle play important roles in cancer virotherapy. Most mathematical models for virotherapy do not include these two agents simultaneously. In this paper, based on clinical observations we propose a mathematical model including the time of the viral lytic cycle, the viral burst size, and the immune system response. The proposed model is a nonlinear system of delay differential equations in which the period of the viral lytic cycle is modeled as a delay parameter and is used as the bifurcation parameter. We analyze the stability of equilibrium points and the existence of Hopf bifurcation and obtain some conditions for the stability of equilibrium points in terms of the burst size and delay parameter. Finally, we confirm the results with a numerical example and describe them from a biological point of view.A special type of IF operations, IF modules and IF homomorphisms
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3283.html
In this paper we study about IF binary operations on some IF sets, at ﬁrst. Then we introduce IF groups, IF modules and IF homo- morphisms under IF binary operations. We present some properties of IF groups rings and modules under binary operation. IF modules and IF homomorphisms over this kind of IF rings are introduced and investigated.The Hadamard-type k-step Pell sequences in Finite Groups
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3284.html
In this work, we study the Hadamard-type k-step Pell sequence modulo m and then, we obtain the cyclic groups which are generated by the multiplicative orders of the Hadamard-type k-step Pell matrix when read modulo m. Then we extend the Hadamard-type k-step Pell sequence to groups and we redefine the Hadamard-type k-step Pell sequence by means of the elements of groups. Finally, we obtain the periods of the Hadamard-type 3-step Pell sequence in the semi-dihedral group SD2m and the quasi-dihedral group QD2m.On the Empirical Spectral Distribution of Lag-Covariance Matrix in Singular Spectrum Analysis
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3285.html
Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) is a non-parametric and rapidly developing method of time series analysis. Recently, this technique receives much attention in a variety of fields. In SSA, a special matrix that is called lag-covariance matrix plays a pivotal role in analyzing stationary time series. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the Empirical Spectral Distribution (ESD) of lag-covariance matrix converges to Marˇcenko{Pastur distribution or not. Such limiting distribution can help us to provide more reliable statistical inference when encountering with high-dimensional data. Moreover, a simulation study is performed and some tools of Random Matrix Theory (RMT) are usedOptimization in progressively Type-II censoring with random sample size based on cost constraint
http://cjms.journals.umz.ac.ir/article_3286.html
&lrm;In this paper&lrm;, &lrm;we consider the progressively Type-II censoring and &lrm;the sample size is assumed as a random variable from a Poisson distribution. The optimal sample size is determined by considering &lrm;a&lrm; cost constraint&lrm;. &lrm;Towards this end, &lrm;&lrm;&lrm;we first introduce a cost function and then the optimal parameter of Poisson distribution is obtained so that the cost function does not exceed a pre-fixed value&lrm;. &lrm;In the following&lrm;, &lrm;through a simulation study&lrm;, &lrm;the results are evaluated&lrm;. &lrm;Finally&lrm;, &lrm;the conclusion of the article is presented&lrm;.